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The hoofed ruminant mammals of the family Cervidae are known as deer or true deer. The Cervinae, which includes the muntjac, elk (wapiti), red deer, and fallow deer, are the two main groups of deer. and the Capreolinae, which includes moose, white-tailed deer, reindeer, and caribou. Female reindeer and male deer of all species, with the exception of water deer, shed new antlers annually. They are distinct from permanently horned antelope, which belong to the same order of even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla) but belong to a different family (Bovidae).

In addition to belonging to the ruminant clade Ruminantia, the Asian musk deer (Moschidae) and chevrotains (Tragulidae) of tropical African and Asian forests are members of distinct families. Cervidae are not particularly close relatives of them.

Since Paleolithic cave paintings, deer have been depicted in art. They have also appeared in mythology, religion, literature, and heraldry, such as the red deer on the land’s coat of arms.[2] Their use of their meat as venison, their skins as soft, durable buckskin, and their antlers as handles for knives all contribute to their economic importance. Since the Middle Ages, deer hunting has been a popular activity that continues to be a resource for many families.