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The historical introductions of this species by humans, first to the Mediterranean region of Europe and then to the rest of Europe, are the source of the current populations of fallow deer in Europe. They started out as park animals before escaping and reestablishing themselves outside. Other herbivores, such as the extinct tarpan (forest horse), extinct aurochs (forest ox), and endangered wisent (European bison), shared Europe’s deciduous forest habitat in the past.

The Scottish Highlands, the Austrian Alps, the wetlands between Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic, and some national parks, such as the Doana National Park in Spain, the Veluwe in the Netherlands, the Ardennes in Belgium, and Biaowiea National Park in Poland, are good places to see deer in Europe. In addition to large deer populations, forest areas in Spain, Eastern Europe, and the Caucasus Mountains are home to wolves, brown bears, wisents, Eurasian and Iberian lynx, and other once-abundant animals.

The mixed deciduous forests, mountain coniferous forests, and taiga that border North Korea, Manchuria (Northeastern China), and the Ussuri Region (Russia) contain the greatest numbers of large deer species in temperate Asia. Siberian roe deer, sika deer, elk, and moose can be found in these, which are among the world’s richest deciduous and coniferous forests. Along the Sino-Russian border, Asian caribou occupy the northern fringes of this region.