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Predators, diseases, and environmental factors all pose a threat to butterflies throughout their developmental stages, beginning with parasitoids. The parasitoid larvae of braconid and other wasps typically pupate within or outside the desiccated husk and lay their eggs in lepidopteran eggs or larvae.

The majority of wasps are very particular about the species they feed on, and some of them have been used to biologically control pest butterflies like the large white butterfly.
The small cabbage white had no natural enemies when it was accidentally brought to New Zealand. Some pupae that had been parasitized by a chalcid wasp were imported to control it, restoring natural control.

Some flies lay their eggs on the outside of caterpillars, and the newly hatched fly larvae feed in a manner similar to that of parasitoid wasp larvae[74]. Ants, spiders, wasps, and birds are all predators of butterflies.
Additional information: Protection in bugs, Hostile to hunter transformation, Mimicry, and Occasional polyphenism.

Butterflies shield themselves from hunters by different means.
The giant swallowtail caterpillar defends itself by everting its osmeterium; It also looks like bird droppings, which is mimicry.

Chemical defenses are common and mostly rely on chemicals from plants. These harmful substances were frequently developed by the plants themselves as a defense against herbivores. Butterflies have developed ways to store these plant toxins and use them to defend themselves.