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An overflow of water—or occasionally other fluids—that submerges dry land is known as a flood. The inflow of the tide can also be referred to as “flowing water” in this sense. The study of floods is part of the discipline of hydrology. Floods are a major issue in agriculture, civil engineering, and public health.

Changes in waterway course or flood control measures like levees, as well as larger environmental issues like climate change and rising sea levels, all contribute to an increase in the intensity and frequency of flooding caused by human activity. Floods will be more severe and the risk of flooding will rise as a result of increased rainfall and extreme weather events brought on by climate change.

Flooding can occur as a result of an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an area flood or as a result of an overflow of water from water bodies such as a river, lake, or ocean in which the water overtops or breaks levees, escaping its usual boundaries. Although seasonal variations in precipitation and snow melt will affect the size of a lake or other body of water, these changes are unlikely to be significant unless they flood property or drown domestic animals.

River floods can also occur when the flow rate exceeds the river channel’s capacity, particularly around bends or meanders. Homes and businesses in the natural floodplains of rivers are frequently damaged by floods.

While riverine flood harm can be disposed of by creating some distance from streams and different waterways, individuals have customarily lived and worked by waterways on the grounds that the land is normally level and prolific and in light of the fact that waterways give simple travel and admittance to trade and industry. In addition to causing damage to property, flooding can increase the spread of water-borne and mosquito-borne diseases as well as the displacement of residents for an extended period of time.