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In China, explosive fueled rockets developed in middle age China under the Tune administration by the thirteenth hundred years. During this time, they also created an early form of MLRS. Chinese rocket technology was adopted by the Mongols, who used it to invade Europe and the Middle East in the middle of the 13th century.

Joseph Needham claims that in a 1245 military exercise, the Song navy used rockets. In a reference from 1264, it is noted that internal combustion rocket propulsion was used to frighten the Empress-Mother Gongsheng at a feast that her son, the Emperor Lizong, had held in her honor. The “ground-rat” was a type of firework.

Rockets are then mentioned in the Chinese artillery officer Jiao Yu’s military treatise Huolongjing, also known as the Fire Drake Manual, written in the middle of the 14th century. The “fire-dragon issuing from the water” (Huo long chu shui), which is thought to have been utilized by the Chinese navy, is mentioned in this text as the first known multistage rocket.

In sieges, military forces used incendiary rockets from the Middle Ages and early Modern times. Hasan al-Rammah wrote the book Al-furusiyyah wa al-manasib al-harbiyya (The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices) between 1270 and 1280.

It contained 107 recipes for gunpowder, 22 of which were for rockets. In the Opus Majus of 1267, Roger Bacon mentioned firecrackers made all over the world in Europe. Based on secondhand accounts, the Liber Ignium provided instructions for the construction of firecracker-like devices between 1280 and 1300. Around 1405, Konrad Kyeser wrote about rockets in his military treatise Bellifortis.