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A large body of salty water, specifically seawater, is referred to as a “sea.” The sea is divided into distinct seas. The ocean, the larger body of seawater, is frequently referred to as the sea. Particular seas can be marginal seas, second-order segments of the oceanic sea, like the Mediterranean Sea, or large saltwater lakes that are completely landlocked, like the Caspian Sea.

The salinity of water bodies varies widely, being lower near the surface and at river mouths and higher in ocean depths; However, there is little variation in the proportions of dissolved salts across the oceans. Salt chloride is the most abundant dissolved solid in seawater. Magnesium, calcium, potassium, mercury, and a slew of other elements can be found in trace amounts in the water’s salts.

The ocean plays a crucial role in the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles and helps to regulate Earth’s climate. Particles and temperature, as well as currents, are exchanged between the water’s surface and the surrounding atmosphere. Surface currents are the water currents that are caused by the atmosphere’s currents and winds blowing over the water’s surface.

These winds create wind waves and set up slow but stable water circulations through drag, like the ocean currents that keep the deep sea alive. The global conveyor belt of deep-sea currents carries cold water from the poles to all oceans, significantly influencing Earth’s climate. The Earth’s rotation and the gravitational pull of the Moon and, to a lesser extent, the Sun are to blame for tides, which are the typically twice-daily rise and fall of sea levels. In bays or estuaries, tides may have a wide range. Tsunamis can be devastating as a result of submarine earthquakes caused by tectonic plate movements beneath the ocean, volcanoes, large landslides, or the impact of large meteorites.