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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea that is connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin, and almost entirely surrounded by land: Anatolia and Southern Europe to the north, North Africa to the south, and the Levant to the east; The Mediterranean plays had a focal impact throughout the entire existence of Western progress.

Geological evidence suggests that the Mediterranean Sea was cut off from the Atlantic about 5.9 million years ago. During the Messinian salinity crisis, it was partially or completely dehydrated for 600,000 years before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years later.

Although the Strait of Gibraltar—the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates the Iberian Peninsula in Europe from Morocco in Africa—is only 14 km (9 mi) wide, the Mediterranean Sea covers approximately 2,500,000 km2 (970,000 sq mi), which is equivalent to 0.7% of the global ocean surface.

However, the Mediterranean Sea is connected to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar. There are a lot of islands in the Mediterranean Sea, some of which were formed by volcanoes. Sicily and Sardinia are the two largest islands in terms of both area and population.