Street-lighting has a substantial part in maintaining the healthy activity in populated districts and is crucial for reducing injuries and street felonies; additionally, street lights are being utilized for creative and promotional goals. Apart from the energy usage, street lights might generate other issues that must be attended as blinding effect, accommodation reflex, illumination pollution and maintenance problems. The ideal solution for illuminating outdoor areas must supply a complete answer to all these aspects.
Electric lights are commonly divided into three major categories: incandescent light lamps, gas discharge lamps (fluorescent lamps, photographic flashes etc.) and semiconductor lamps (such as LED; light-emitting diode). Each light source is analyzed by the efficacy, functionality and price in order to establish the suitable lighting for various locations. What is good for domestic property does not necessarily match a manufacturing facility, a parking area or a freeway.
Exterior areas like playgrounds and streets require intensive illumination. Street lights are intended to illuminate large outdoor places for pedestrians and vehicles. When attempting to decide, which illumination form is optimal for street-lights or parking lots or any other application, multiple factors that may influence the final result should be taken into consideration. Light absorption, direction of light, lifespan, color, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emission, level of luminosity and physical durability are all part of the checkup list.
Currently, various types of incandescent and fluorescent light lamps are the most frequently used light sources around the world. The key reasons for that are the low cost and the human tendency to stick with the familiar.
Incandescent light lamps produce light by warming up a thin wire using an electrical current. The glass lamp is contain an inert gas, which does not react with the filament and secures it from oxidation. The filament shines when reaching high temperature levels. Since most of the emitted radiation converts to heat ( about 90 %) instead of visible light, the luminous efficacy of those lamps is incredibly modest, ranges between 10-15 Lumens per watt. Incandescent lamps are sensitive to electric current shifts, vibrations and additional local conditions; they experience 10 % -15 % light depreciation, and their standard life expectancy is considerably shorter than most other lighting techniques (1,000 hours). This factor is highly important when planning street-light systems, where constant replacements generate expensive and slow upkeep works.
Fluorescent technology employs electricity to release inert gas in mercury vapor, which inevitably creates a visible light. Cutting-edge fluorescent lamps have a fairly high efficiency level equal in value to 80-100 Lumens per watt. They call for components as starters and ballasts in order to perform, which brings the basic cost of lamps to rise. The fluorescent pipes include mercury, hence, are categorized as contaminated materials. These lamps have a tendency for starter and flicker issues, reduced efficacy through time that results in dim pink light and their color rendition is regarded as uncomfortable and distorting. In addition, fluorescents often generate humming voices and are particularly sensitive to extreme temperatures and fluctuations. Fluorescent lamp lifespan varies between 10,000 to 20,000 hours, although these numbers could decrease due to frequent switching. It consumes a relatively large space however, spreads the light better than incandescent lamps.
Light emitting diode is a modern semiconductor light source, which is established on recombination procedure of electrons and electron holes. As opposed to standard light lamps, LEDs light performance is not relative to the energy usage. LED’s light efficacy level offered today has reached 160 Lumens per watt and the number continually increases. It is not affected by dimensions or design; size of LED may be very modest and other optical components can be included to create a specific radiation pattern. The lifespan of LED ranges between 50,000-100,000 hrs, but can be extended when managed by smart lighting techniques. LED offers fantastic controllability; it controls over the intensity, direction and shade of light. It displays multiple light colors without the need of external filters, like other light sources. LED lamps are exceptionally resistant, which makes them perfect for outdoor locations that are exposed to weather, traffic and various external hazards.
Street lights are a necessity for keeping the basic safety and the normal functioning of a society. Nonetheless, street lamps are major energy consumers; they demand intensive maintenance, and produce 6 % of the global greenhouse gas emission. LED lamps are far more efficient than pretty much any traditional light source as far as luminous efficiency and lifespan are concerned, and as a result, they allow a radical decrease of upkeep costs. LEDs are proven for displaying a better viewing experience and for reducing greenhouse gas emission. They are extremely resistant, very simply dimmed and focused, and may be built to suit different sites through modifications of color and shape.
The significant merit of the conventional light source over LED lamps is their affordable rate. LED’s up-front rate is undoubtedly higher than most other street lights sources, even though it constantly decreases, and yet, is remarkably lucrative in the course of time, certainly if maintenance cost saving is calculated.
LED lamps are especially efficient when integrated with a smart control system. Smart light controlling allows a delivery of complete data from each lamp pole and a complete control over each light source functioning.